By Tony Chan Carusone
The 2nd version of Analog built-in Circuit Design specializes in extra assurance approximately different types of circuits that experience elevated in significance long ago decade. in addition, the textual content is superior with fabric on CMOS IC machine modeling, up to date processing format and extended insurance to mirror technical recommendations. CMOS units and circuits have extra impact during this variation in addition to a discounted volume of textual content on BiCMOS and bipolar info. New chapters contain subject matters on frequency reaction of analog ICs and simple concept of suggestions amplifiers.
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Extra info for Analog Integrated Circuit Design
Pictured in Fig. 1. eleven, this can be successfully a semiconductor resistor the place the channel intensity, and for that reason resistance, are modulated by way of a gate voltage. for this reason, like semiconductor resistors, triode MOS units show nonlinear resistance and parasitic capacitances. yet, as the accomplishing channel sector is way shallower than in semiconductor resistors, the resistance is much more nonlinear than a semiconductor resistor. regularly, MOS triode resistors are just used while the voltage around the resistor terminals (i. e. the drain and resource of the MOS machine) will stay considerably below V eff . regardless of those shortcomings, MOS units in triode have targeted homes that lead them to very important as resistors in analog integrated-circuit layout. First, the price of resistance should be tuned through a 3rd terminal: the gate voltage. moment, rather huge values of resistance may be learned in a truly compact sector. instance 1. 21 As in instance 1. 19, you require a resistor of price 50kΩ . notwithstanding, because the voltage around the resistor isn't anticipated to exceed two hundred mV, you opt it truly is possible to exploit a n-channel MOS units in triode to enforce it. you choose to exploit a number of units sized W ⁄ L = 2μm ⁄ 1μm to prevent short-channel results. If μ n C ox = 300μA ⁄ V 2, V tn = zero. 3V, and also you decide on to take advantage of V GS = 1V, locate the variety of sequence units required to enforce the resistor. evaluate the ensuing machine sector to that calculated in instance 1. 19 for a strip resistor. resolution The resistance of a tool in triode is given in equation (1. 104). r ds ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ W⎞ = ⎜⎜ μ n C ox ⎜ -----⎟ ( V GS – V tn )⎟⎟ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ ⎠ –1 ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎛ 2μm⎞ = ⎜ 300μA ⁄ V ⎜ ------------⎟ ( 1V – zero. 3V )⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1μm⎠ ⎝ ⎠ –1 = 2. 38kΩ With 21 such units in sequence, the specified resistance 21 ⋅ 2. 38kΩ = 50kΩ is learned. this is often significantly smaller than combining 20 strip resistors in sequence, each one 5μm × 1μm, as in instance 1. 19. despite how they're carried out, resistor values fluctuate enormously from one built-in circuit to a different and with adjustments in temperature. thankfully, with a few care it truly is attainable to make sure that such diversifications impact all c01. fm web page fifty eight Sunday, October 23, 2011 3:45 PM fifty eight bankruptcy 1 • Integrated-Circuit units and Modelling resistors on a given built-in circuit nearly both. Analog built-in circuits needs to frequently be designed to operate competently even if the resistor values switch by way of 10 – 40%. 1. 6. 2 Capacitors pn Junction Capacitors The capacitance supplied through reverse-biased pn-junctions has already been mentioned in part 1. 1. Junction capacitances should be brought deliberately into an analog layout to function a capacitor. they supply a comparatively excessive price of capacitance consistent with unit zone because the depletion zone may be very skinny and the relative permittivity of silicon is kind of excessive (K s ≅ eleven. 8). Their capacitance might be tuned via adjusting the voltage throughout them. whilst used to achieve a variable capacitor during this method, they're known as varactors. regrettably, a number of beneficial properties of junction capacitances pose difficulties for analog layout.